GPS sattelite tracking in Python using pyEphem

As part my PhD, I used GPS satellites to measure the beam pattern of a telescope I built. While this can be done easily with the pyEphem module, I found that there wasn’t much documentation out there on the interwebs. So, I’ve written a simple Python script (below) which takes you through the basics of using pyEphem to track the path of GPS satellites.

Firstly, you’ll be needing a list of GPS satellites. This can be downloaded from:
This is in the form of Two-Line Element sets (TLEs — which humorously are three lines long). You can load these into pyEphem using the readtle() command.

Anyway, here’s the script. You’ll need numpy, matplotlib and of course the pyEphem module:

import numpy as np
import pylab as plt
import ephem
import datetime
# Setup lat long of telescope
oxford = ephem.Observer() = np.deg2rad(51.75)
oxford.long = np.deg2rad(-1.259) =
# Load Satellite TLE data.
l1 = 'GPS-BIIF-1'
l2 = '1 36585U 10022A   12102.71732698 -.00000026  00000-0  10000-3 0  7813'
l3 = '2 36585  55.4685  55.7745 0013418  26.7546 333.2981  2.00556192 13724' 
biif1 = ephem.readtle(l1,l2,l3)

# Make some datetimes
midnight = datetime.datetime.replace(, hour=0)
dt  = [midnight + datetime.timedelta(minutes=20*x) for x in range(0, 24*3)]

# Compute satellite locations at each datetime
sat_alt, sat_az = [], []
for date in dt: = date
# Plot satellite tracks
plt.plot(dt, sat_alt)
plt.ylabel("Altitude (deg)")
plt.plot(dt, sat_az)
plt.ylabel("Azimuth (deg)")

# Plot satellite track in polar coordinates
plt.polar(np.deg2rad(sat_az), 90-np.array(sat_alt))

This script creates a pyEphem observer and a satellite object, computes the altitude and azimuth of the satellite as seen from the observer, and then plots the results. If you find the datetime.datetime stuff confusing, I highly recommend Salty Crane’s cheat sheet.

After the script has run, you should see this polar plot of the satellite’s trajectory:

Finally, here’s a simple function to read in a text file filled with TLE data:

def loadTLE(filename):
    """ Loads a TLE file and creates a list of satellites."""
    f = open(filename)
    satlist = []
    l1 = f.readline()
    while l1:
        l2 = f.readline()
        l3 = f.readline()
        sat = ephem.readtle(l1,l2,l3)
        l1 = f.readline()

    print "%i satellites loaded into list"%len(satlist)
    return satlist

Hope this comes in helpful for someone!